Cloning a VM without vCenter in ESXi

1. Create a new blank vm
-open vSphere Client
-right click host/New Virtual Machine
-Configuration
click Custom
-Name and Location
Name: clone
-Storage
choose your target datastore
-Virtual Machine Version
click Virtual Machine Version: 8
-Guest Operating System
choose target OS
-CPUs
choose target CPU
-Memory
choose target RAM
-Network
choose target NIC
-SCSI Controller
choose LSI Logic SAS
-Select a Disk
click Do not create disk
-Ready to Complete
click Finish

2. this to clone and convert to thin vm

# vmkfstools -i /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/source-vm/source-vm.vmdk /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/clone-vm/clone-vm.vmdk -d thin -a lsilogic

3. Attach disk to cloned vm
-open vSphere Client
-right click clone vm/Edit Settings
-click Add/Hard Disk
click Use an existing virtual disk
choose disk created in step 2

Nested ESXi

1. check whether your ESXi support nested ESXi or not
open browser and go to
check whether nestedHVSupported is True or False.
If True that mean supported. If False that mean our ESXi only support 32bit vm OS only

PARENT
2. Create TRUNK port for Nested ESXi
Image
3. Install Child ESXi with this configuration
-Choose Custom Configuration at the beginning, type a name for the machine (e.g. vESXi) and select a datastore for it
-Select Virtual Machine Version: 8
-For the Guest Operating System choose Other, in the Version dropdown select Other (64-bit), then enter ESX02
-For the CPUs select a configuration that results in at least 2 virtual cores (this can be either 1 socket and 2 cores per socket or 2 sockets and 1 core per socket)
-Memory: ESXi 5.5 requires a minimum of 4 GB
-Network: ESXi will work fine with just 1 NIC, but there are certain scenarios where you get warnings about missing redundancy. So, I usually use 2 NICs. Depending on the test scenarios that you are targeting you might also use more than 2
-Pick the default SCSI Controller LSI Logic Parallel
-If you want to have a local persistent scratch partition on the same disk then you need to configure a size of at least 5.5 GB. Even bigger sizes will result in a VMFS datastore being automatically created on the remainder of the disk
-After the VM has been created edit its General Options and change the Other (64-bit) to VMware ESXi 5.x in the Guest Operating System version dropdown. This is not possible in the New VM wizard, but now after the VM has been created (because running ESXi in ESXi is officially unsupported)
-remove the Floppy drive from the virtual hardware
-in Advanced Options / Boot Options raise the Power On Boot Delay to 5000 ms (or higher). After powering on the VM and opening its console this will give you some time to press ESC for the boot menu or F2 for the BIOS setup before the installed OS starts booting

4. Upgrade Child ESXi Hardware Version

if your physical host runs ESXi 5.5 then upgrading the VM this way will result in hardware version 10, and you will no longer be able to edit the VM’s configuration using the vSphere Client! In this case to upgrade to version 9 only we need to open an ESXi shell (see this KB article if you need instructions for doing this) and run the following commands
#vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms
This will list all VMs that are registered on the host. Find the nested ESXi VM that you just created and note its vmid. Then run
#vim-cmd vmsvc/upgrade vmid ESX02 
This will upgrade the VM with the id vmid to hardware version 9

PARENT & CHILD ESXi
5. Install latest patches
# esxcli software sources profile list -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml | grep ESXi-5.5 | grep 2015

ESXi-5.5.0-20150104001-no-tools   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-standard   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150101001s-no-tools  VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-no-tools   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150104001-standard   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150101001s-standard  VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported

#esxcli software profile install -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml -p ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-standard

CHILD ESXi
6. Open its firewall for outgoing http-requests
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set -e true -r httpClient

7. Install VMWare Tools special for nested ESXi
#reboot
#esxcli system settings advanced set -o /Net/FollowHardwareMac -i 1
#sed -i “/\/system\/uuid/d” /etc/vmware/esx.conf
#/sbin/auto-backup.sh

8. Export this vm as OVA
Click ESX02 vm
Click menu File/Export OVF Template
Choose Format: Folder of files (OVF)
NOTE:
I got this error when import as OVA

ESXi date and time

METHOD1: GUI
To configure NTP on ESX/ESXi 4.1 and ESXi 5.x hosts using the vSphere Client:
Connect to the ESX/ESXi host using the vSphere Client.
Select a host in the inventory.
Click the Configuration tab.
Click Time Configuration.
Click Properties.
Click Options.
Click NTP Settings.
Click Add.
Enter the NTP Server name. For example, pool.ntp.org.
Note: When entering the multiple NTP Server names, use a comma (,) followed by a space ( ) between the entries.
Click OK.
Click the General tab.
Click Start automatically under Startup Policy.
Note: It is recommended to set the time manually prior to starting the service.
Click Start and click OK.
Click OK to exit.
METHOD2: CLI
# cat /etc/ntp.conf
restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer
restrict 127.0.0.1
server id.ntp.pool.org
driftfile /etc/ntp.drift
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set –enabled=true –ruleset-id=ntpClient
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set –enabled=true –ruleset-id=updateManager
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set –enabled=true –ruleset-id=httpClient
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set –enabled=true –ruleset-id=iSCSI
#esxcli network firewall ruleset set –enabled=true –ruleset-id=syslog
#chkconfig –add ntpd
#date MMDDhhmmYYYY
#hwclock –systohc

#esxcli network ip dns server add –server=192.168.0.11

#esxcli system hostname set –host=esx0
#esxcli system hostname set –domain=poc.com
#vim-cmd vimsvc/license –set xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxx

Change ESXi disk type to SSD

SOURCE:

My 1TB SSD drive shown as Non-SSD in Dell PowerEdge R320 RAID0 PERC.

Image
How to trick ESXi to think it as SSD drive
1. check disk list
# esxcli storage nmp device list
naa.690b11c02d2926001b1dcaf00f26bc58
Device Display Name: Local DELL Disk (naa.690b11c02d2926001b1dcaf00f26bc58)
Storage Array Type: VMW_SATP_LOCAL
Storage Array Type Device Config: SATP VMW_SATP_LOCAL does not support device                                                       configuration.
Path Selection Policy: VMW_PSP_FIXED
Path Selection Policy Device Config: {preferred=vmhba1:C2:T0:L0;current=vmhba                                                      1:C2:T0:L0}
Path Selection Policy Device Custom Config:
Working Paths: vmhba1:C2:T0:L0
Is Local SAS Device: false
Is USB: false
Is Boot USB Device: false

# esxcli storage nmp satp rule add -s VMW_SATP_LOCAL -d naa.690b11c02d2926001b1dcaf00f26bc58 -o enable_ssd
Verify SSD has been enabled
# esxcli storage nmp satp rule list | grep enable_ssd
VMW_SATP_LOCAL       naa.690b11c02d2926001b1dcaf00f26bc58     enable_local enable_ssd     user
# reboot
Image
To change back to NON-SSD:
# esxcli storage nmp satp rule remove –satp VMW_SATP_LOCAL -d naa.690b11c02d2926001b1dcaf00f26bc58
# reboot

VMware Terminology

SOURCE:

NO TERM
1 ALUA: Asymmetrical logical unit access, a storage array feature.
2 Auto Deploy: Technique to automatically install ESXi to a host.
3 Balloon driver: A memory management technique; reclaims guest VM memory via VMware Tools.
4 Cluster: A collection of hosts in a vSphere data center.
5 Configuration Maximums: Guidelines of how big a VM can be; see the newest for vSphere 5.5.
6 CPU Ready: The percentage of time that the VM is ready to get a CPU cycle (higher number is bad).
7 DAS: Direct attached storage, disk devices in a host directly.
8 Datacenter: Parent object of the vSphere Cluster.
9 Datastore: A disk resource where VMs can run.
10 DNS: Domain Name Service, a name resolution protocol. Not related to VMware, but it is imperative you set DNS up correctly to virtualize with vSphere.
11 DPM: Distributed Power Management, a way to shut down ESXi hosts when they are not being used and turn them back on when needed.
12 DRS: Distributed Resource Scheduler, Automatically move a high processing virtual machine to
another ESXi host that has more resources
13 Dynamic grow: A feature to increase the size of VMDK while the VM is running.
14 ESXi: The vSphere Hypervisor from VMware
15 FCoE: Fibre Channel over Ethernet, a networking and storage technology.
16 FT: Fault Tolerance, When a ESX host fails, virtual machines are replayed on another
ESX host.
• Required that HA be enabled
• Impact: Virtual machines enabled for FT are resumed without any
interruption of service
17 HA: High Availability, When a ESX host fails, virtual machines are restarted on another
ESX host.
• Impact: Virtual machines are restarted resulting in 5-10+ minutes to be operational again
• One ESXi host is the Master (Running), another ESXi host is the Slave (Connected)
18 HBA: Host Bus Adapter for Fibre Channel storage networks.
19 Host Profiles: Feature to deploy a pre-determined configuration to an ESXi host.
20 Hot-add: A feature to add a device to a VM while it is running, such as a VMDK.
21 Hypervisor swap: A memory management technique; puts guest VM memory to disk on the host.
22 IOPs: Input/Outputs per second, detailed measurement of a drive’s performance.
23 iSCSI: Ethernet-based shared storage protocol.
24 ISO: Image file, taken from ISO 9660file system for optical drives.
25 LUN: Logical unit number, identifies shared storage (Fibre Channel/iSCSI).
26 Maintenance mode: An administration technique where a host evacuates it’s running and powered off VMs safely before changes are made.
27 Memory compression: A memory management technique; applies a compressor to active memory blocks on the host.
28 MOB: Managed Object Reference, a technique vCenter uses to classify every item.
29 NAS: Network attached storage, a shared storage technique for file protocols (NFS).
30 Nested hypervisor: The ability to run ESXi as a VM either on ESXi, VMware Workstation, or VMware Fusion.
31 NFS: Network file system, a file-based storage protocol.
32 NSX: New technology virtualizing the network layer for VMware environments. Read more here.
33 NUMA: Non-uniform memory access, when multiple processors are involved their memory access is relative to their location.
34 NVRAM: A VM file storing the state of the VM BIOS.
35 Openstack: A cloud operating system that can leverage many hypervisors underneath, including ESXi.
36 OVA: Packaging of OVF, usually as a URL to download the actual OVF from a source Internet site.
37 OVF: Standards based format for delivering virtual appliances.
38 P2V: Physical to Virtual
39 PowerCLI: vSphere CLI that’s better than vCLI or vMA
40 pRDM: Physical mode raw device mapping, presents a LUN directly to a VM.
41 Quiesce: The act of quieting (pausing running processes) a VM, usually through VMware Tools.
42 Resource pool: A performance management technique, has DRS rules applied to it and contains one or more VMs, vApps, etc.
43 SAN: Storage area network, a shared storage technique for block protocols (Fibre Channel/iSCSI).
44 SAS: Drive type for local disks (also SATA).
45 Shares: Numerical value representing the relative priority of a VM.
46 SSD: Solid state disk, a non-rotational drive that is faster than rotating drives.
47 SSH to ESXi host: The administrative interface you want to use for troubleshooting if you can’t use the vSphere Client or vSphere Web Client.
48 Storage DRS Cluster: A collection SDRS objects (volumes, VMs, configuration).
49 Storage I/O Control: I/O prioritization for VMs.
50 Storage vMotion: A VM storage migration technique from one datastore to another.
51 Transparent page sharing: A memory management technique; eliminates duplicate blocks in host memory.
52 V2V: Virtual to Virtual
53 VAAI: vStorage APIs for Array Integration, the ability to offload I/O commands to the disk array.
54 VADP: vSphere APIs for Data Protection, a way to leverage the infrastructure for backups.
55 vApp: • Group liked virtual machines together
• Common configuration within that group
• Startup process
• Resource Pools
56 vCenter Configuration Manager: Part of vCloud Suite that automates configuration and compliance for multiple platforms.
57 vCenter Linked Mode: A way of pooling vCenter Servers, typically across geographies.
58 vCenter Orchestrator: An automation technique for vCloud environments.
59 vCenter Server Heartbeat: Will keep the vCenter Server available in the event a host fails which is running vCenter.
60 vCenter Server: Windows Server that run vCenter to manage multiple ESXi servers
61 vCenter Single Sign on: Authentication construct between components of the vCloud Suite.
62 vCenter Site Recovery Manager: An automated solution to prepare for a site failover event for the entire vSphere environment.
63 vCLI: vSphere Command Line Interface, allows tasks to be run against hosts and vCenter Server.
64 vCloud Automation Center: IT service delivery through policy and portals, get familiar with vCAC.
65 vCloud Director: Application to pool vCenter environments and enable self-deployment of VMs.
66 vCloud Networking and Security: Part of the vCloud Suite; provides basic networking and security functionality.
67 vCloud Suite: The collection of technologies to deliver the VMware Software Defined Data Center.
68 vCSA: vCenter Server Appliance, Linux Server that run vCenter to manage multiple ESXi servers
69 VDI: Virtual desktop infrastructure, also called DaaS (Desktop as a Service) from Horizon View; run as ESXi VMs and with vSphere.
70 vDS: vNetwork Distributed Switch, an enhanced version of the virtual switch.
71 Virtual Appliance: A pre-packed VM with an application on it.
72 Virtual hardware version: A revision of a VM that aligns to its compatibility. vSphere 5.5 is HW ver 10, vSphere 6.0 is HW ver 11
73 Virtual NUMA: Virtualizes NUMA with VMware hardware version 8 VMs.
74 VM Snapshot: A point-in-time representation of a VM.
75 VM: Virtual Machine
76 vMA: vSphere Management Assistant,allows administrators to run scripts or agents that interact with ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server systems without having to explicitly authenticate each time. vMA can also collect ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server logs and store the information for analysis
77 VMDK: The virtual machine disk format, containing the operating system of the VM. VMware’s virtual disk format.
78 VMEM: The page file of the guest VM.
79 VMFS: Virtual Machine File System for ESXi hosts, a clustered file system for running VMs.
80 vmkernel: Officially the “operating system” that runs ESXi and delivers storage networking for VMs
81 vMotion: Moving a running virtual machine from one ESXi host to
another host without loss in connectivity.
• CPU support
• Enhanced vMotion Compatibility (EVC).
82 VMSD: VM file for storing information and metadata about snapshots.
83 VMSN: Snapshot state file of the running VM.
84 VMSS: VM file for storing suspended state.
85 VMTM: VM file containing team data.
86 VM-VM affinity: Sets rules so two VMs should run on the same ESXi host or stay separated.
87 VMware Compatibility Matrix: List of supported storage, servers, and more for VMware technologies.
88 VMware Tools: A set of drivers for VMs to work correctly on synthetic hardware devices. Read more on VMware Tools.
89 VMware vCenter Mobile Access (vCMA): virtual appliance that is required to manage your datacenter from mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets
90 VMX: VM configuration file.
91 VMXF: Supplemental configuration file for when VMs are used in a team.
92 VOVA: A VMware appliance to test OpenStack for vSphere
93 vRDM: Virtual mode raw device mapping, encapsulates a path to a LUN specifically for one VM in a VMDK.
94 vSA: vSphere Storage Appliance is a software-based shared storage solution that enables high availability and automation in vSphere without shared storage hardware
95 vSAN: Virtual SAN, a new VMware announcement for making DAS deliver SAN features in a virtualized manner.
96 vShield Zones: A firewall for vSphere VMs.
97 vSphere Client: Administrative interface of vCenter Server.
98 vSphere DRS: Distributed Resource Scheduler, service that manages performance of VMs.
99 vSphere Fault Tolerance: An availability technique to run the networking, memory and CPU of a VM on two hosts to accommodate one host failure.
100 vSphere folder: An organizational construct, a great way to administer permissions and roles on VMs.
101 vSphere HA: High Availability, will restart a VM on another host if it fails.
102 vSphere Licensing: Different features are available as the licensing level increases, from free ESXi to Enterprise Plus.
103 vSphere role: A permissions construct assigned to users or groups.
104 vSphere SDRS: Storage DRS, manages free space and datastore latency for VMs in pools.
105 vSphere Web Client: Web-based administrative interface of vCenter Server.
106 vSphere: Collection of VMs, ESXi hosts, and vCenter Server.
107 vSwitch: A virtual switch, places VMs on a physical network.
108 VUM: vSphere Update Manager, a way to update hosts and VMs with latest patches, VMware Tools and product updates.
109 VXLAN: VMs with a logical network across different networks.
110

Install ESXi latest patches

SOURCE: http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=2008939
download latest patch from https://my.vmware.com/group/vmware/patch#search
upload an update to esxi host

# vmware -lv

# vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter

Install latest patches
# esxcli software sources profile list -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml | grep ESXi-5.5 | grep 2015

ESXi-5.5.0-20150104001-no-tools   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-standard   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150101001s-no-tools  VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-no-tools   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150104001-standard   VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported
ESXi-5.5.0-20150101001s-standard  VMware, Inc.  PartnerSupported

#esxcli software profile install -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml -p ESXi-5.5.0-20150204001-standard
# vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_exit && reboot
# vmware -lv